STUDY ON SOCIAL MATURITY AND ADJUSTMENT OF HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS By Dr. S. K. Panneer Selvam[1]

Abstract

The young students in our society undergo stormy period of life before they achieve full adulthood.  Certain incidents in their life produces crises of adjustment and these incidents result in the breakdown of their normal life.  Those who possess stable or consistent personality are considered as well adjusted.  Lazarus (1976) is of the opinion that adjustment and personality are inextricably bound together. The term adjustment has two meanings.  In one sense, it is the process by which a person changes his behaviors to achieve a harmonious relation between himself and his environment and in the other; it is the state of such harmonious relationship.  Adjustment consists of the psychological process by means of which the individual manages or copies with various demands.  Webster’s third new international dictionary gives as one of the definitions of adjustment “the effort to achieve a harmonious mental and behavioral balance between one’s own personal needs and strivings and the demands of other individuals and of society”. “Adjustment refers to the way an individual gets along in satisfying the needs in an emotional, social and educational environment.

Key words: personality, harmonious, emotional, stable, maturity, resources.

INTRODUCTION

Education is a social concept, which is philosophically evolved and physiologically developed.  It has been accepted as a fundamental human right.  Government has been taking on its shoulders the responsibility of providing Education to its citizens.  National Plans have been giving larger outlays for Educational development as education is recognized as the investment human resources development.  The educators duty is not confined in giving instructions to the educand. He should mould the growing organism.  The Kothari Commission reports states “The destiny of India is now being shaped in her Class Room” (1964-66) Hence the teacher plays an important role in shaping and molding the personality of the student. Social maturity in the level of social development is characterized by independence from parental and adult control in social situation.  It is characterized by the individual’s ability to mix with people in social situations and manage social dealings without anybody’s assistance.

NEED FOR THE STUDY

Students are the backbone of the educational process.  Education is a process and acts also as an instrument to bring out the innate behavior of the individual.  The students of today are the youths of tomorrow and future citizens of the country, therefore proper development and growth of the students should be ensured even at the earliest age.  The needful steps taken at this period ensures a healthy democracy in the country.  Adjustment problems of higher secondary students have always attracted the attention of educational psychologists all over the globe.  An educated person should be able to make effective adjustments with the environment were one is destined to live.  Social development is continuous and cumulative.  Adolescents are subjected to more worried and often more conflicts.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

                The above discussion has made the present investigator to choose the problem at hand and it is stated as follows: “Social maturity and Adjustment of Higher Secondary school students of Nagappatinam District.”

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following are the objectives for the present investigation.

To find out the social maturity of the Higher Secondary School students.

  1. To find out if there is any significant difference in social maturity of students belonging to different sub samples. (Gender, Local, Type of school, parental education).
  2. To find out the adjustment of Higher Secondary School Students.
  3. To find out if there is any significant difference in the adjustment of students belonging to different sub samples (Gender, locale, Parental education, Type of School).
  4. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between social maturity and adjustment scores.

HYPOTHESIS

The hypotheses of the study are as follows.

  1. The Social Maturity of the Higher Secondary School Students is high.
  2. The Adjustment of the Higher Secondary School Students is high.
  3. There is significant difference between the means of social maturity of Higher Secondary Students with regard to
    1. Gender (Male / Female)
    2. Locale (Rural / Urban)
    3. Parental Education (Literate / Illiterate)
    4. Type of School ( Government / Private)
  4. There is significant difference between the means of Adjustment of Higher Secondary with regard to
    1. Gender (Male / Female)
    2. Locale (Rural / Urban)
    3. Parental Education (Literate / Illiterate)
    4. Type of School ( Government / Private)
  5. There is significant relationship between social maturity and adjustment of Higher Secondary School Students of Nagappatinam District.

TOOLS OF THE STUDY

The following two tools have been used for the study. Rao’s social maturity scale (1998) and adjustment inventory for school students by Sinha, A.K.P. and Singh R.P (1984).

SAMPLE

Random sampling Technique was used in the selection of sample of 300 plus one Higher Secondary School Students in Nagappatinam District have been chosen of the areas of the population for studies. Out of 40 Higher Secondary School located in these areas 6 school were chosen by lottery method.  Then from each of these six schools after having arranged the first year Higher Secondary School Students belonging to different group in the alphabetical order, every fifth student was chosen to constitute the sample. Thus, from these six-selected schools 300 plus 1 Higher Secondary School Students were selected for the sample.

METHODOLOGY

  1. The social maturity of the higher secondary school students of Nagappatinam District.
  2. If there is any significant difference in the social maturity belonging to different sub samples (Gender, locale, Type of school, parental education).
  3. The adjustment of the higher secondary school students of Nagappatinam district.
  4. If there is any significant difference in the Adjustment of students belonging to different sub samples (Gender, locale, type of school, Parental education).
  5. Whether there is any significant relationship between social maturity and adjustment scores.

In order to realize the above objectives two tools namely Rao’s Social Maturity Scale (1998) and Sinha and Singh’s Adjustment inventory (1984) were administrated to the selected sample of 300 plus 1 higher secondary school students.

RELIABILITY

                Split-half method, test and retest and internal consistency method was applied for obtaining the reliability co-efficient of the scale.  It was found to be 0.78.

VALIDITY

                Experts in the field of psychology and education have ascertained the face validity of the tool.

SAMPLE

                Random sampling Technique was used in the selection of sample of 300 plus 1 Higher Secondary School Students in Nagappatinam district.  Out of 40 higher secondary school located in Nagappatinam district six school chosen by lottery method. Then from each of these six schools after having arranged the plus one students belonging to different group in the alphabetical order, every fifty student was chosen to constitute the sample. Thus, from these six-selected school, 300 plus 1 higher secondary school students were selected for the sample.

THE STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES USED

The means and standard deviations for the sample, and its sub samples are computed for Social maturity and Adjustment scores. The test of significances (t-test) was used in order to the find out the significance of means of pairs of sub sample in respect of their Social Maturity and Adjustment. The person’s product moment ‘r’ was computed between the social maturity and Adjustment scores. The means of the Social Maturity and Adjustment scores are represented through histogram at the appropriate places.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF DATA

Table 1: The Means and standard Deviations of the Social Maturity and Adjustment of the Entire sample.

Entire Sample N Mean S.D.
Social Maturity 300 232.68 22.82
Adjustment 19.47 08.36

The means and standard deviation of the social maturity scores for the sub samples are calculated and then they are given in the following tables (Tables 2,3, 4,5).

Table 2: The Mean and Standard Deviations of the Social Maturity Scores of the Male and Female Plus one Higher Secondary School Students.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D.
Male 150 232.77 19.99
Female 150 232.76 25.62

The means and standard deviation of the social maturity scores of male and female students were calculated. They are given in the above table. It is seen from the table 2 that the means of Male and Female plus one students of Social Maturity is more or less same.

Table 3: The Mean and Standard Deviations of the Social Maturity Scores of the Rural and Urban  Plus one Higher Secondary School Students.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D.
Rural 150 234.84 23.61
Urban 150 230.69 22.13

The means and standard deviation of the social maturity adjustment students were calculated.  They are given in the above table. It is seen from the table that the mean of the social maturity scores of the rural plus one students is higher than the mean of the Urban school students.

Table 4: The Mean and Standard Deviations of the Social Maturity Scores of Students of Literate Parents and Illiterate Parents.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D.
Students of Literate Parents 193 233.56 23.34
Students of Illiterate Parents 107 231.35 22.25

The means and standard deviation of the social maturity scores of students of literate and illiterate parents were calculated.  They are given in the above table.  It is seen from the table 4 that the mean of the social maturity scores students of literate parents is higher than the mean of the students of illiterate parents.

Table 5: The Mean and Standard Deviations of the Social Maturity Scores of the Plus One Higher Secondary School Students studying in Government Schools and Private School.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D.
Government School Students 150 235.24 24.16
Private School Students 150 230.30 21.45

The means and standard deviation of the social maturity scores of government and private school students were calculated.  They are given in the above table.  It is seen from the table 5 that the mean of the social Maturity scores of Government school students are shown higher than the mean of the private school students.

 

NULL HYPOTHESIS 1

There is no significant difference between the means of social maturity scores of male and female students.

Table: 6 The mean and Standard Deviation and Cr of the social maturity scores of the Male and Female plus one Higher Secondary School Students.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D. C.R. Level of Significance (0.05)
Male 150 232.77 19.99 0.33 Not significant
Female 150 232.76 25.62

The details of the calculation are given in the table (10) The CR values are found to be .003 which is not significant at 0.05 levels.  Therefore the null hypothesis is retained and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between the male and female plus one, higher secondary school students in respect of their social maturity. Thus, the study shows that the gender cannot cause any significant difference to the plus one higher secondary school student’s social maturity.

NULL HYPOTHESIS 2

There is no significant difference between the means of social maturity scores of Rural and Urban School Students.

Table: 7 The mean and Standard Deviation and Cr of the social maturity scores of the Rural and Urban plus one Higher Secondary School Students.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D. C.R. Level of Significance (0.05)
Rural 150 234.84 23.61 1.572 Not significant
Urban 150 30.69 22.13

The details of the calculation are given in the table (11) The CR values are found to be 1.572 which is not significant at 0.05 levels.  Therefore, the null hypothesis is retained and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between the rural and urban plus one, higher secondary school students in respect of their social maturity. Thus, the study shows that the locality cannot cause any significant difference to the plus one higher secondary school student’s social maturity.

NULL HYPOTHESIS 3

There is no significant difference between the means of social maturity scores of Rural and Urban School Students.

Table: 8 The mean and Standard Deviation and Cr of the social maturity scores of the Students of Literate Parents and illiterate Parents.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D. C.R. Level of Significance (0.05)
Students of literate parents 193 233.56 23.34 .811 Not significant
Students of illiterate parents 107 231.35 22.15

The details of the calculation are given in the table (12) The CR values are found to be 0.811 which is not significant at 0.05 levels.  Therefore, the null hypothesis is retained and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between the plus one, higher secondary school students who have illiterate and literate parents in respect of their social maturity.

Thus the study shows that the parental education  cannot causes any significant difference to the plus one higher secondary school student’s social maturity.

NULL HYPOTHESIS 4

There is no significant difference between the means of social maturity scores of Government and Private Students.

Table: 9 The mean and Standard Deviation and Cr of the social maturity scores of the plus one higher secondary school students studying in government schools and private School.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D. C.R. Level of Significance (0.05)
Government School Students 150 235.24 24.16 1.873 Not significant
Private School Students 150 230.30 21.45

The details of the calculation are given in the table (13) The CR values are found to be 1.873 which is not significant at 0.05 levels.  Therefore the null hypothesis is retained and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between the Government and Private plus one, higher secondary school students in respect of their social maturity. Thus, the study shows that the Type of School cannot cause any significant difference to the plus one higher secondary school student’s social maturity.

NULL HYPOTHESIS 5

There is no significant difference between the means of social maturity scores of Male and Female Students.

Table: 10  The mean and Standard Deviation and Cr of the Adjustment Scores of the Male and Female plus one higher secondary school students.

Sub Samples N Mean S.D. C.R. Level of Significance (0.05)
Male 150 19.85 8.19 .619 Not significant
Female 150 19.25 8.60

The details of the calculation are given in the table (14) The CR values are found to be 0.619 which is not significant at 0.05 levels. Therefore the null hypothesis is retained and it is concluded that there is no significant difference between the male and female plus one, higher secondary school students in respect of their adjustment. Thus, the study shows that the gender cannot cause any significant difference to the plus one higher secondary school student’s adjustment.

 FINDINGS

  1. The social maturity of higher secondary school students is high.
  2. The social maturity of male and female of higher secondary school students is high.
  3. The rural and urban higher secondary school students are having high social maturity.
  4. The students of literate parents and illiterate parents are having high social maturity.
  5. The social maturity of government and private higher secondary school students is high.
  6. The adjustment of the Higher Secondary School Students is high.
  7. The adjustment of male and female of higher secondary school students is high.
  8. The rural and urban higher secondary school students are having high adjustment.
  9. The students of literate parents and illiterate parents are having high adjustment.
  10. The adjustment of government and private higher secondary school students is high.

CONCLUSION

Thus, the present investigation has yielded many interesting results that are bound to add to the volume of knowledge already present in this field of investigation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Shah and Guha “A study of adjustment and insecurity feeling among adolescents of two types of families”.  Journal of Education and psychology. 1985.

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[1] Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-T.N