EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND EFFECTIVENESS IN TEACHING By Partha sarathi Mallik[1]

 

Abstract

In the present study it has been shown the Potential Effect of teacher in enhancing or degrading the quality of teaching. Then an attempt has been made to show how the attributes of effective teacher are co-inside with the factors of Emotional Intelligence. For this, firstly an idea about Emotional Intelligence has been given. Then it has been shown how different factors of E.I. are found present near effective teacher. So conclusion has been made effective teacher has all the attributes of E.I.

Key words: Emotional Intelligence & Effectiveness in Teaching

Quality Teaching & Teacher:

According to Edmund Amindon (1967): “Teaching is defined as an interactive process, primarily involving classroom talk which takes place between teacher and pupil and occurs during certain definable activities.” It means teaching is a process of interaction between teachers and taught. It is also a co-operative enterprise; those commonly shared phenomenon or matter that leads to improvement or development. Now-a-days due to excessive exposure to science and technology, sometimes we boost for replacing teacher by computer or other machine. In that moment we are forgetting regarding the real meaning of education and role of teacher in teaching-learning process. It is not merely a mechanical process of acquiring certificate or mastering content knowledge rather gaining information, initiation, attitude, skill, motivation for the life. It would induce desirable positive effect on the cognitive, affective and connative dimension of the student’s behavior. (Bloom, et al, 1956).  The machine cannot substitute a teacher, only it can assist in the process of education. In the modern knowledge-based competitive society, there is a wild rush towards achieving excellence in education. Here the consideration given to teaching by each educational institution. It means teaching is being regarded as an art of providing information, awakening of curiosity, development of proper interest, attitude and value for life by the systematic knowledge about pedagogy. Better knowledge about teaching leads to better education. It is undoubtly a fact that quality education can come from quality teaching and that will come from high professional quality teacher. Teachers have the potentiality to bring live and enhance quality of education. He can mould and channelize the curriculum and can motivate the students towards self learning. In the other hand a teacher can also degrade the quality of education through error, laziness, cruelty and incompetence. For better or worse, teacher determines the quality of education (Day, 2004). So, in the process of quality and Excellency in education, teacher occupies the central position.

 

The quality teaching demands teachers to be highly innovative in their attitude, flexible in their approach, always refreshing themselves with the recent development in his field. At the same time he should know the student’s potentiality and diversified need, so that he can create a conducive environment for learning. The dream of learning society becomes true only when the teacher will be well equipped with morality, high intellect, communication skill etc. They will conscious about their profession. It will lead to high quality teaching. These teachers will be committed, enthusiastic, and intellectually energetic to their work. They will conscious about the context where they have to teach. They will have an optimist attitude towards their profession that they will make significant positive change of the learning and learner behavior. So, the quality of teaching includes all the personality dimension of teacher i.e.- span of knowledge, teaching skill or pedagogy and teacher behavior (Dull, 2005). For teacher the knowledge means knowledge about the subject, student and society / environment. This second important component is pedagogy, which means how to transmit the knowledge. The last one is the teacher behavior that affects significantly the total teaching and life of student. The behavior of teacher includes both verbal and nonverbal, inside and outside the classroom which moulds the attitude, outlook and earning style of students. The quality of teaching is solely depends upon the effectiveness of teacher. So, teaching without teacher is un thinkable. In spite of argument and comments from every sphere of society, regarding the professionalism of teacher, teaching occupies the glorious status of serving the society and nation. Realizing the importance, Kothari Commission (1964) has stated that the destiny of India is being shaped in her classroom. Though there is individual difference in every sphere of work starting from Administrative to Agriculture, it is more prominent in the field of teaching. Because it is a profession basically to be deal with need, sentiment, and emotion of human being. So, everyone cannot able to do the task in a same manner. Simultaneously the teacher has to meet the multifarious demands of society. This is also not an easy task for all. He / She will have to equip the students with best knowledge, best attitude, best skill, and best motive for life. So that he / she will be declared as efficient teacher. An efficient teacher will be intellectually sharp, heartily affectionate and professionally skilled i.e. sound development of head-heart and hand. He will take the profession as creative & adventurous.

Emotional Intelligence and Efficiency of Teacher:

The most pertinent question come here that what is the factor that contribute for efficiency of teacher? Why one teacher is being hardly accepted by students, and other one not. Is it the intelligence subject knowledge, professional training of teacher or anything else? There was no professional training near Aristotle or Guru Dronacharya. But they could able to produce the best students in the past. These empirical evidences of past indicates that training about pedagogy is not the sole predictor of successful teaching rather supplementary of success in teaching. Generally the depth of knowledge or understanding about the subject matter is known as intellect capacity or Intelligence which was known as one and only factor for success in every walk of life in past. But in a recent study conducted by Danial Goleman, (1995) found that the success in every sphere not depend solely upon intellect. It accounts for only 20%, the social or emotional intelligence and luck accounts for the rest. It was also found that where as people with high I.Q. flops were in real life, in their families or in community where as people with high E.I. have proved themselves successful in these areas.

Numerous studies have identified teaching and emotional intelligence is highly co-related that means quality teaching and factors of emotional intelligence are of homogeneous in nature. According to Lazarus (1991), understanding and being able to apply emotional intelligence is essential to success in teaching. Here understanding means meta- cognition and cognition of others” emotion is the central part of teacher’s work. An emotionally intelligent teacher learns and applies emotional intelligent skills to improve stress management skill, self-esteem, confidence, positive personal change, decision making, leadership, assertion, comfort and commitment which would raise quality of teacher and consequently the quality of education (Nelson, 2005). Teaching is a profession where high range of emotional intelligence is needed in compare to other profession. (Sing, 2003)From all the above related studied it is clear that components of emotional intellect and teaching are related.

What is Emotional Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence refers to capacity / ability to control those aspects of our life’s which are associated with emotions. It is basically a form of social intelligence which involves the ability to monitor one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and utilize this information to guide one’s thinking and action (Salovey and Mayer, 1990).That means it is emotional management ability for successful social interaction. Bar-on (2000) defined emotional intelligence as “an array of non-cognitive capabilities, competences and skills that influence one’s ability to succeed in copying with environmental demands and pressure.” According to Peter Salovey and John Mayor as DNA works in our body, some abilities work together for emotional intelligence. If these abilities are nurtured with experience, this will enable to develop emotional intelligence. Also these abilities are hierarchical in nature i.e. previous will lead for next. It includes four abilities. These are:-

Ability to accurately perceive, appraise and express emotion.

Ability to generate feelings on demand when they can facilitate understating of yourself or other person.

Ability to understand emotions and knowledge that devices from them.

Ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

The above components / abilities are of theoretical base. From the practical or application context Hendrie Weisinger, 2005 has mentioned that the emotional intelligence has two aspects. First part is of ‘Intra- personal’ aspect of emotional intelligence. These aspect deals with three components: a-Self Awareness, b-Managing Self Emotion, c-Motivating Self. The second part is of ‘inter-personal’ aspect of emotional intelligence. These aspect deals with three components: a-Communication Skill, b-Inter-personal Expertise, c-Helping others to help themselves.

Intra-Personal Emotional Intelligence and Teaching:

From this point of view emotional intelligence is a meta- cognitive ability that means the knowledge about own emotion. This has the following sub-aspect.

A-Self-Awareness and Teaching:- Self Knowledge of the teacher concerned with knowing one’s own potentiality, strength and weakness. If a teacher could aware about self, it will help him / her to observe himself in action. Then it will influence his action with full zeal. Self evaluation will beneficial not only for this own professional growth but also for whole teaching learning process. When a teacher can able to know his behavior is getting irritating, voice is louder & he is repeating same information due to dearth of knowledge, it will act as a feed back for modifying own behavior. Effective teacher exactly known what he is thinking, what he wants to say or intention of his speech or action. So, self awareness positively enhances the quality of teaching.

B-Management of Self Emotion & Teaching: – The Self Awareness is not end with itself rather it will lead to management of emotional situations. Management in the sense that teacher should not suppress it rather utilizing it in appropriate situation for constructive reason. Classroom situations usually give birth to number of stressful situation while dealing with multifarious students. Due to extreme repetition, undesirable actions of students inside a classroom, a normal teacher can become easily irritate. On the other hand emotional intelligent teacher can manage the situation by showing emotionally stable behavior. He can know his own emotion and can exactly find out the real cause of his irritation and will change those environmental stimuli in a positive manner. Management in the sense the teacher will not victim of emotional pressure rather he will exhibit various positive & negative emotions as per need of situation.

C-Self -Motivation and Teachers:- When one teacher will be self motivated, he can able to begin the task of teaching, monitoring progress of students, doing the assignment with cent percent zeal. He will stick with his mission and move ahead for completion whatever hurdle may arise in the path. He can drag the support from colleagues; head of the institution and also from student. This self motivation will lead to confidence, optimism, tenacity, enthusiasm and resiliency in the worm. An emotionally intelligent teacher an apply these skills to improve stress- management, Self-esteem and confidence, positive personal change, decision making leadership, assertion, comfort and commitment, which will raise his quality and consequently education (Nelson, 2005). In order to teach effectively he must be psychologically and emotionally comfortable. He should have some sense of belief motive that he can bring a positive change to the life of children, he is teaching.

Inter-Emotional Intelligence and Teaching:

It is being said that teaching is an emotional interaction between educate and educator. The feeling, sentiment of these two should have a common platform. Teacher should have that much of emotional intelligence for successful recognitions of the fear, strength and curiosity of the students. This emotional intelligence has the following sub-aspects.

  • Communication Skill and Teaching:

The basis of any relationship is communication. Appropriate Communication establishes effective connection and it leads to forges a relationship which is inevitable for teaching. The value of effective communication skills in the workplace is incalculable (Weisigner. H, 2005). Use of wrong words, ill-advised gestures and misunderstood meanings & inappropriate Para-language can lead to very unsatisfactory outcomes inside the classroom and school. Emotionally intellect teacher has the full control over communication skill and he is a patience listener.

  • Interpersonal Expertise and Teaching:

An Emotionally Intelligent teacher can relate well to others by appropriately and meaningfully exchange of information, ideas and concepts. A teacher can be called as expertise in interpersonal communication when he can able to meet the needs of others especially students, colleagues and Administrator. He shares feelings, thoughts and ideas with the students. This can be best judged how much time he is giving for them, with whom he wants to share these things. Without a warmth connection between teacher and student, teaching will be futile. An emotional intelligent teacher will be a friend, philosopher & guide for the student.

  • Helping other to help themselves and Teaching:

The time has taken a ‘U’ turn. The emphasis has shifted from teaching to learning. No more the role of teacher is to rain the information upon the students rather to help them for solving their own problem and initiate for self learning. An emotionally intelligent teacher can use the emotions of students for have a group and cooperative learning where one student will help other and one teacher will help other. These are the indicator of quality educational system.

Conclusion

Each and every basic ingredients of teaching coincide with the factors of emotional intelligence. Emotion, not the cognition is the predictor of success in teaching. An emotionally stable teacher can best utilize his / her intellect and help to utilize the intellect of students in a fruitful manner which is the indicator of learning society. It has been said that teachers characteristics are related to, and influence, the way they practice their profession (Anderson, 2004). The major position of teacher’s efficiency lies in his emotional maturity skill to handle emotional situations.

References:

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Anderson, Lorin W. (2004) increasing Teacher effectiveness. UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning.

Bar-on, R. and Parker, J.D.A. (2000) (Eds) The hand book of emotional intelligence: Theory Development, Assessment and application at home, school and in work place, Sanfrancisco, Jossey-Bass/wiley

Day, Christopher. (2004). A passion for Teaching, New Delhi: Foundation Books.

Dhull, Indira, Mangal Subhra, (2005) Emotional Intelligence its significance for school teachers, EDUTRACKS, July.

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Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185-211.

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[1] Partha Sarathi Mallik, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, Fakir Chand College, Diamond Harbour, South 24 pgs, West Bengal,743331