Men & women bring different specific strength & limitations. This is reflected in the type of thinking & Problem solving methods. Women are as potentially able as men to contribute to the national development. If women are barred there will be a loss of talent to the nation. In this context the purpose of this paper is to focus on National & State mission for the Empowerment of girls & women through its Empowerment & Education domain ensures gender mainstreaming in the education sector in order to empower women holistically & thorough her the nation building. The aim of this paper is to converging and linking various schemes of Govt. of India & Govt. of Jharkhand, focusing on women. The domain will review existing studies, policies, programmes, schemes & also commission research studies of various programmes, schemes on education for better implementation. Improvements in education are not only expected to enhance the efficiency but also augment the overall quality of girls & women’s life. Education is an instrument of social change & eliminates gender disparities & ensures equal opportunities in every sphere of life.
Women, the first school of the child, constitute roughly on half on the world’s population. But their social, economical & political status is lower than that of men in almost all countries of the world. Of course, women do enjoy better position in some societies than in others, but their overall position everywhere is lower than their male counterparts. All over the world, education is regarded as the key factor in over corning the barriers that girls and women face and the basic tool for empowering girls & women and bringing them the main path or development. Education is the greatest prerequisite for success for any girl & woman. No society can keep half its population from basic understanding of science & technology developments. The university education commission (1949) has rightly remarked: “There cannot be an educated people without educated women lf general education had to be limited to men or women, that opportunity should be given to women, for them it would more surely be passed on to the next generation.” In a fast changing economy and global market trends, women’s struggle for survival has become increasingly difficult as they encounter social and religious prejudice and economic disadvantages. Studies, particularly in Jharkhand, has revealed that there are wide disparities and Inequalities between men and women in all areas, including access to education, health care, food, energy, income and employment.
Empowerment has a vast meaning. When we say to empower a women it means to provide her a power to be self efficient in every sphere of life like – social, economical, ethical, cultural, rational, moral, intellectual, Mental, Emotional, physical, Radical nutrition, Vocational etc. The right/authority which provide various power to girls/women for their all round development & easily adjustment in every sphere of life termed as Empowerment of girls & womens.
Area/Scope of women empowerment
|Equity & Equality|
There are various area/scope of girl/women empowerment which comprises all areas concerning to the life like :- social, cultural, economical, mental, physical, emotional, moral, intellectual, vocational, Nutritional, Rational, Ethical, equity & equality, technological etc. For the empowerment of women we have to pay attention in all these areas with great concentration.
Constitutional Provisions for Empowering girls & women through education:
In the Indian constitution, education is both a union & state subject. It means that both centre & the state are responsible for its expansions & progress. It is the responsibility of the centre & the states that every individual is equipped with the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to discharge his duties as responsible and cooperative citizen so that the proper functioning of democracy in the Nation and also at the international level can be maintained with its limited resources in all aspects like social, economical, political, educational & familial etc.
“our women have more rights than women of other countries, but there are large areas where women are suffering, where, may be they are not conscious of their rights.” (Gulshan 1975). The constitution of India makes the following provisions for education:
- Article 15 (1)
“The state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place or birth of any of them”.
- Article 15 (3)
“Nothing in this article shall prevent the state from making any special provisions for women & children”.
- Article 16 (1)
“There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the state.”
- Article 39 (a)
“The state shall, in particular, direct its policy towards securing that the citizens, men and women, equally have the right to an adequate mean of livelihood.”
- Article 39 (d)
“That there is equal pay for equal work for both men & women.
Policies of Empowerment of girls & women through education in Jharkhand:
Jharkhand women development committee:
Jharkhand women development committee was established on April 30th 2001. Under social welfare women & child development department for all round development of women’
The objectives of Jharkhand women development committee are as follows:-
To help the women under certain described condition
To recognize those trade and industries which can be accepted by women.
To purchase crude materials tools and plants and instruments and to distribute them among business women.
To established marketing centers for the sale of women products.
To established industries and production units to provide employment for women.
To organize training programme to increase the efficiency of women.
To do some programme that can increase the literacy of women.
To collect the information about the development of women such as better inhabitation’ home, management increase in income, family planning, social activities, land reforms, agriculture, right of law, leadership etc.
To take responsibilities of collecting data & information regarding research related to that development of women.
Social welfare, women & child Development Department:
It was established on 2002 as an independent body. Previously it was included in welfare department. The Department of social welfare, women and child development can look back at the achievements of the last 5 years in the areas of nutrition, care for the physically challenged & empowerment of women. It covers the following areas:
- Campaign against malnutrition among children between the age of 0 to 6 years has reached a new height with the universalization of the ICDS program. All children irrespective of their cast, creed & cold are benefited by this scheme which covers pregnant & lactating mother as well’ This is an important step in ensuring that the child of the poorest family in the state is ensured of adequate supplementary nutrition when it is most needed for his or her overall mental & physical well-being.
- In the area of the care of the physically challenged, one singular achievement has been the introduction of the Vivekananda Nisshakt Swawlamban Protsahan Yojana, whereby every physically challenged person above the age of 5 years is given monthly stipend of 400 rupees, in all it is estimated that the state has a physically challenged population of around 3% of the total population.
- This department has given a considerable boost to the success of routine immunization in the Anganwadi carters to children & mothers.
- Empowerment of women & the care of the girl child also engaged the attention of the department during the 1l-th plan period and the thrust in this area is proposed to be continued in the 12th plan period as well.
- The prevention of sexual harassment at the workplace needs special rescue & rehabilitation of adolescent girls. The department is committed that such vulnerable sections are protested, their problems monitored with adequate safety & rehabilitation schemes.
- The department also ensures gender equity & protection of women at the workplace Women go out of their homes & engage inproductive, economic activity.
It has been the constant Endeavour of social welfare department to provide assigning priority to different knees of the children, disabled, older persons development
Role of Education imparting empowerment of girls & women in Jharkhand
Education is the single most important instrument for social & economic transformation. A well educated population of women adequately equipped with knowledge & skill is not only essential to support economic growth, but is also a pre condition for growth to be incursive, since it is only the educated & skilled women who can stand to benefit most from the employment opportunities which growth will provide in all aspects of rife. The first & most important change that would strike anyone in Jharkhand, is the revolution in the position of women. It would only possible through the successful implication of various national & state policies and schemes at ail revel of education.
For Empowerment of Girls & Women
|Jan Shiksha Sansthan|
|Shikasha ka Haq Abhiyan|
|Model Degree College|
|Indira Gandhi Scholarship|
|Post- Doctoral fellowship|
Fig- various policies, schemes for empowerment of girls & women through education.
- Elementary Education
Elementary education has been accorded priority & Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan (SSA) was launched during L1th plan as a part of universalisation of the elementary education. schemes rerated to excursively for girls are as follows.
- Mahila samakhya scheme
- National programme for education of girls at elementary level(NPEGEL)
- Kasturba Gandhi balika vidyalya (KGBV)
These schemes have been launched by MOHRD. M.S.S. or “women collective” to empower women in rural areas especially from society & economically marginalized groups. The programme focused on creation of awareness which has resulted in increasing the enrolment & retention rates of girls in school.
- Secondary Education
The need to setup a mission for universalisation of secondary education was envisaged and Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA ) has been launched by MHRD to widen -access to women, sc/st, & other deprived categories of children. schemes like model schools. National & state merit cum means scholarship are also implemented. For the promotion of the girl education at sec level, the scheme for incentives to girls for sec. Education and scheme for establishment of girl’s hostels are implemented.
The schemes of incentives promote the enrolment of girl child belonging to sc/st in secondary schools & ensure their retention up to the 18 years of age. Girls hostel scheme envisages construction & running of hostels in educationally backward areas for the promotion of the access and retention of girls at secondary revel vocationalisation of sec. Education in being implemented since 1988 to enhance individual employability and to reduce the mismatch between the demand & supply of skilled manpower & provides alternative for those pursuing higher education.
- Adult Education
There are various policies & schemes have been promoted for adult education.
- Sokhshar Barat: Its design & structure with principle focus on women & excluded groups like Sc/ St, and minorities etc. The mission has broad objectives which enable the neo literate adults to continue their learning beyond basic literacy & acquire equivalency to formal education system. lt also impart non & neo literates relevant skill development programmes to empower their earning & living conditions.
- Jan Shiksha Sansthan: have been established to promote vocational training to disadvantaged groups of adults, to raise their efficiency & increase their productive ability.
- Shikshaka Haq Abhiyan; In october2ort, the national advisory council (NAC) for RTE took a decision to launch a wide campaign for RTE as Shikshaka Haq Abhiyan.
- Higher Education
To promote women for getting higher education, there are various policies & schemes such as:
- Women’s hostel in higher education institutions.
- Women Studies centre in universities & colleges.
- Establishment of model degree colleges in educationally back ward destricts.
- Residential coaching Academy for minorities & Sc/St. & women.
- Girls Hostel in minority concentration Area.
- Merit scholarship scheme.
- Indira Gandhi Scholarship for single girl child for pursuing higher & technical knowledge.
- Post doctoral fellowship for women.
There are some suggestive measures for empowering girls & women for their all-round development through education:
- Awareness needs to be generated among the masses regarding the necessity of educating girls so as to prepare them to effectively contribute the socio-economic development of the country.
- Early childhood care & education introduces children into the school system gradually & smoothly.
- While no distinction heed be made between education imparted to boys & girls.
- Efforts should be made by state Governments to open separate schools for girls wherever there is demand for them.
- Definite conditions should be laid down in regard to coeducational schools to satisfy the special needs to girls student & women members of the teaching staff.
- Involvement of local leaders, voluntary agencies & women’s group is also necessary.
- School curricula should be imaginatively developed to stimulate creativity.
- Local talent must developed in order to meet the need for recruiting women teachers in rural & tribal areas.
- There should be a reservation of 50 percent posts for women teachers in schools with suitable accommodation in rural areas.
Women- the traditional educators & health providers in the family Research shows that female literacy plays an important role in raising productivity level income generating activities and in reducing child mortality rates & population growth women must be exposed to various technologies from simple to complex and use them in their daily lives. Yet girls & women’s participation in the management of resources & in Decision- making processes at every level will bring a new perspective to the system. The various national & state policies & schemes on girls & women empowerment through education took due cognizance of the women’s right & need of technical & vocational education for furthering their interest as citizens & human being . lt put emphasis on implication of proper education and employability of women, so that they may live a life of economic independence, a life free of wants. When women got equal opportunity in every aspects, they can raise their efficiency in all round development. For the proper growth & development of the state & the nation, the status of girls & women should be conserved, preserved and improved as an assets of the nation.
Bhatnagar (1983): Indian Education: today & tomorrow; V.P.: international publishing house.
Mishra, R.C. (2012): Encyclopedia of education (women education) New Delhi: APH publishing corporation.
Siddique, M.H. (2012): women education (A Research Approach):APH Publishing corporation.
Internet: Jharkhand education project council (JEPC)
Internet: Jharkhand women development counittee
Internet: Kasturba Gandhi balika vidyalaya
Internet: National programme of education for girl. At elementary level.
Internet: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Internet: govt. of Jharkhand, social welfare & child development department.
Internet: national policy on education (NPE) 1986
 Principal, Gautam Buddha T. T. College, Hazaribag